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Khilafat-Umaiya

INDEX 

VOL - 3A

Khilafat-e-Banu Umaya

1-Ameer Mua'via RA bin Abu Sufyan bin Harab bin Umaya

2-Yazeed bin Mua’via

3-Marwan bin Hakam

4-Abdul Malik bin Marwan bin Hakam bin Abul Aas bin Umaya

5-Waleed bin Abdul Malik - 51 yrs.

6-Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik - 39 yrs.

7-Umar bin Abdul Aziz bin Marwan

8-Yazeed bin Abdul malik-34 yrs.

9-Hisham bin Abdul Malik-55 yrs.

10-Waleed bin Yazeed bin Abdul Malik-36 yrs.

11-Yazeed Naqis bin Waleed bin Abdul Malik-35 yrs.

12-Ibraheem bin Waleed bin Abdul Malik-

13-Marwan bin Mohammed bin Marwan-60 yrs.

List of Khulafa

List of Ameer in Spain

VOL - 3B

Khilafat-e-Banu Umaya in Andalus/Spain

1-Abdur Rahman bin Mua’via bin Hisham bin Abdul Malik

2-Hisham 1st. bin Abdur Rahman

3-Hakam 1st. bin Hisham

4-Abdur Rahman 2nd. bin Hakam

5-Mohammed 1st. bin Abdur Rahman

6-Munzir bin Mohammed

7-Abdullah bin Mohammed

8-Abdur Rahman 3rd.bin Mohammed

9-Hakam 2nd.bin Abdur Rahman 3rd.

10-Hisham 2nd.bin Hakam 2nd.

11-Mohammed 2nd.bin Abdul Jabbar bin Abdur Rahman

12-Sulaiman bin Hakam 2nd.

Mohammed 2nd. (Again)

Hisham 2nd. (Again)

Sulaiman (Again)

13-Abdur Rahman Murtaza bin Abdul Malik

Ali bin Hamood (shiya')

Qasim bin Hamood (shiya’)

Yahya bin Hamood (shiya’)

14-Abdur Rahman bin Hisham

15-Mohammed bin Abdur Rahman

16-Hisham 3rd.bin Mohammed

List of Khulafa

Discoveries & Development

VOL - 3C

Kingdom in Spain

Al-Moravid enter Spain

1-Yousuf

2-Ali bin Yousuf

3-Tashfeen bin Ali

4-Abu Ishaaq bin Tashfeen

Al-Mohads Kingdom 56

1-Yousuf bin Abdul Momin

2-Mansoor

3-Abu Mohammed

4-Al Mamoon

5-Ibne Hawad

6-Arakan

Mohammed bin Al Ahmar on Gharnata & Hunain.

Jamayat bin Zayd on Balancea.

Muslim kingdom remained in Ashbelia, Tulaitla & Gharnata only.

Rulers after Banu Umaya

Ashbelia

1-Qazi Abul Qasim.

2-Al Motazid.

3-Leghaya.

4-Al Mo'tamid.

5-Yousuf bin Tashfeen (African Kingdom).

Tulaitla

1-Ismaeel.

2-Yahya Mamoon.

3-Yahya Qadir.

Gharnata

1-Shah Mohammed Al Ahmar

2-Shah Mohammed Saani (2nd.)

3-Shah Mohammed Saalis (3rd.)

4-Shah Abul Juyoosh Nasr

5-Shah Abul Waleed Ismaeel

6-Shah Mohammed Rabea'(4th.)

7-Shah Abul Hajjaj Yousuf Awal (1st.)

8-Ismaeel/Abu Saeed

9-Mohammed Khaamis (5th.)

10-Yousuf Saani (2nd.)

11-Mohammed Saadis (6th.)

12-Yousuf Saalis (3rd.)

13-Mohammed Sabia' (7th.)

14-Yousuf Rabea’ (4th.)

15-Mohammed Saamin (8th.)

16-Usman Ismaeel

17-Mohammed Taasia'(9th.)

18-Mohammed Aa’shir (10
th.)

19--Shah Abul Hassan

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VOLUME - 3A 

Khilafat Banu Umaya

Total Khulafa = 13 Nos.

41H to 132H.= 660 - 750AD. =90 yrs.

Capital at Damishq( Damascus)

Spain

Total Khulafa =16+19

92H to 898H = 710-1493AD=800 yrs.

Capital at Qurtaba

1- Ameer Maavia RA bin Abi Sufyan bin Harb bin Umaya.

41H - 60H. =
661-680AD.=20 yrs.

Age:- 77 yrs.

Birth:-15 years before hijrat in Makka.

Death:-Rajab 60H ( April 680AD) in Damascus.

Accepted Islam:- 8H. At Victory of Makka.

Qualities:- Revelation writer

Patient, Tolerant, Forbearing.

15H-17H:-Hakim Jordan at the tjme of Umar RA.

17H-22H:-Hakim Damascus & Jordan. At the time of Umar RA.

22H-41H:-20 yrs. Hakim Shaam before Khilafat. At the time of Usman RA.

20 yrs. Khalifa( Caliph).

Ruled on:-

Arabian Peninsula, Palastine, Egypt ,Libya, Tunis, Sudan, Iraq arab & ajam, Cyprus, Konya, Qiqan, Kohistan.

There were 3 political parties:-

1-Bani Umaya

2-Sheya:- Followers of Ali RA.

3-Kharijees:-Created at Battle of Saffayn. Between Ali RA & Muavia, Amar bin Aas RA.

Governor of Iraq & Shaam:-

41-60H:-Mugheera & Ziyad was appointed Governor of Basra and Kufa in different periods and they were busy in crushing the Kharijees, who were killing & looting in Iraq.

Mugheera bin Shoba died in 50H. Ziyad died in 53H.

53-60H-Ubaydullah bin Ziyad- Governor Basra & Khurasan.

Upto 43H-Amar bin Aas RA-Governor of Egypt. He died in 43H.

Governor of Egypt & Africa:-

43-47H- Abdullah bin Amar bin Aas

47-50H- Moavia bin Khadeej.

50-55H- Uqba bin Nafe

55-60H- Muslima bin Mokhallad.

Governor of Hijaz:-

41-60H- Marwan bin Hakam/Saeed bin Aas.

Victories

Eastern Coast

44H (664AD)- Mohallab bin Abi Safra captured upto Lahore.

Northern & Western Coast

Ameer Muavia RA prepared a fleet of 1,700 armed ships. He made a ship building industry in Sham and wood were brought from the mountains of Lebanon.

Cyprus Island, Greece & Rhodes Islands were captured. These islands were Naval army camps protecting the muslim territory from Romans attack.

Qustuntunia( Constantinople)

49H (670AD):- Sufyan bin Auf took a huge army to attack on Qustuntunya( Constantinople) the Roman Capital. Great sahaba like Abu Ayub Ansari, Ibne Abbas, Ibne Umar, Ibne Zubair Ra & Yazeed were present, reached by land to Bosphorous shore. Another Naval army under the command of Basar bin Abi Artat reached at the wall of

58

Constantinople. During the siege of Constantinople muslims had to bear much loss of men and ships. Abu Ayub Ansari RA was buried at the wall of Constantinople. His tomb still exists which was built at the time of Khilafat Usmania.

Africa

47H-55H:- Uqba bin Nafe with 10,000 army captured the Northern coast of Africa from Sudan to Morocco. He constructed a big city Qirwan after cleaning the jungle. A beautiful mosque was also constructed. This city was built in 5 years. The muslims started living in peace in this city. Muslims were able to fight with the Barbar's( Barbarians) and captured a large area. Many barbarians accepted Islam.

2- Yazeed bin Maavia

60H - 64H.
(680-683AD) = 3.5 yrs.

Age:- 42 yrs.

Birth:-22H in Damascus.

Death:-R.Awal 64H in Damascus.

60H- After several letters of invitation from the leaders of Kufa Hussain RA sent Muslim bin Aqeel to Kufa to find out the reality.

Zilhaj 60H (680AD) - Hussain RA left Makka with his family towards Kufa on the invitation of the leaders of Kufa. Although the Great & noble sahaba stopped him but he did not stop.

When he was near Kufa he heard that Muslim bin Aqeel was martyred. Then he realized the treachery of the Kufi's, and tried to return back but now it was too late. Army sent by Ibne Ziyad surrounded him. He had no choice but to fight.

10 Mhrm. 61H - Hussain RA was martyred by Shimar commander of Ubaydullah Ibne Ziyad at Karbala Kufa.

When the head of Hussain RA and female family members were sent to Yazeed, tear came out of his eyes and he said that Ibne Ziyad has made his place in hell. He sent the family of Hussain RA with respect and honour to Madina.

Zilhaj 63H- Muslim bin Uqba attacked on Madina and made killing.

Mhrm. 64H -Heseen bin Numair Attacked on Makka but had to retreat because the news of death of Yazeed reached Makka.

Victories of Khurasan

61H- Muslim bin Ziyad
was made Governor of Khurasan & Sajistan. He sent Mohallab bin Abi Safra to deal with the rioters. Mohallab defeated them. He then attacked on Samarqand.

Victories of Sajistan

62H- Yazeed bin Ziyad
was made Governor of Sajistan. Yazeed bin Ziyad was defeated by the rioters of Kabul. So Talha bin Abdullah Khazaee was sent, he defeated the rioters and became the Governor of Sajistan.

Victories of Africa

62H- Uqba bin Nafe again became the Governor of Africa. He took a huge army and defeated the Roman army and captured Bagha, Zaab, Qahrat, Tunja & Sose, till he reached extreme west and put his horse in Atlantic Ocean and said Oh Allah if this ocean was not in my way I would have advanced further. Later Uqba was martyred in a battle with Kaseela the Barbarian leader. He captured North Africa.

Marwan bin Hakam

64H - 65H.
684-685AD. =1 yr.

Age:- 62 yrs.

Birth:-3H in Taif.

Death:-Rmzan 65H in Damascus.

His father Hakam was real uncle of Usman Ghani RA.

Ruled on:-Sham & Egypt.

Abdullah Bin Zubair

59

64H - 73H = 9 yrs.

Birth:-2H in Madina.

Death:-J.Akhir 73H in Makka.

Ruled on:-Hijaz & Iraq.

67H-Rebellion Tawabeen

Those who did treachery to Hussain RA for the sake of repentance formed a group and started massacre in Iraq and advanced towards Sham. At Qarqeesya Ubaydullah bin Ziyad crushed the rebellions.

67H-Rebellion Mukhtar Saqafi

Mukhtar captured Kufa and started killing all those who were involved in the murder of Hussain RA. But his intention was only to form his kingdom in Iraq. Ubaydullah bin Ziyad fought bravely but was defeated and killed by Mukhtar. Actually Mukhtar was non-arab and enemy of arabs so he started killing arabs.

68H-Abdullah bin Zubair RA posted his brother Musab bin Zubair RA as Governor of Basra and asked to crush the riot of Mukhtar. Musab crushed the rioters and killed Mukhtar.

Rebellion Khwarij

68H-
Abdullah bin Hars Governor of Basra appointed Muhallab bin Abi Safra to crush the rioters.

Muhallab crushed the rioters killed their leader Ubaydullah bin Mahooz. The rest flew away to Kirman & Isfahan.

68-71H- Musab bin Zubair became the Governor of Basra. He appointed Umar bin Ubaydullah to crush the Khawarij. Umar defeated them and turned them out from Arjan. Now they collected at Isfahan.

Musab again appointed Muhallab to crush Khwarij. Muhallab turned them out towards Ramhurmuz.

Now Musab bin Zubair was martyred and Iraq was captured by Abdul Malik.

3- Abdul Malik bin Marwan

65H - 86H.
685-705AD.= 21 yrs.

Age:- 60 yrs.

Birth:- 26H in Madina and learnt deen from great scholar sahaba.

Death:-Shawal 86H in Damascus. At the time of death he collected his sons and gave a God fearing advise.

Ruled on:-

Egypt & Shaam. On remaining area Abdullah bin Zubair RA upto 73H.

After 73H on Iraq. Rome- (Harqala, Qaysaria, Qalqeela, Maseesa). Vast. Africa. Eastern Territories-( Marv, Kush).

Qualities

Abdul Malik was a great Islamic scholar, a brave fighter and he is the one who recaptured all the Islamic territories and strengthened the Islamic Kingdom with his selected Governors, Hajjaj bin Yousuf, Muhallab & sons, Zohair bin Qays, Hassaan bin Noman & Ubaydullah bin Abdullah. Although most of the time he was busy in crushing the internal riots in Iraq.He constructed Gumbad-e-Sakhra(Dome of the Rock) in 688-691AD on the Rock from where Prophet Mohammed SA ascended for Meraj. It is also believed to be the place of Haikal-e-Sulaimani.

71-77H-Rebellion Khwarij

71H-Khalid bin Abdullah
was made the Governor of Basra. He again sent Muhallab to crush the Khwarij. He turned them out from Ahwaz.

Meanwhile another Khariji leader Abu Fadeek captured Bahrain. Khalid could not succeed against him.

73H-Bishr Bin Marwan was made Governor of Iraq and ordered to again send Muhallab on this mission. When the army reached Ramhurmuz news came of the death of Bishr. As usual people of Kufa & Basra betrayed and returned back to their houses.

60

75H-Hajjaj became the Governor of Iraq and dealt with the people of Kufa & Basra strongly and sent them back to Muhallab. He went on defeating the Khwarij and captured entire Persia.

Muhallab made his son Yazeed- Hakim of Kirman and returned back to Kufa.

He was given a great welcome by Hajjaj.

76H-One Kharijee leader Shabeeb started killing, looting and ruined the peace of Iraq. Hajjaj sent several army but they were all defeated. Surprising thing was that only 1,000 Kharijees defeated 50,000 Iraqees.

Hajjaj asked help from Abdul Malik. He sent Shami army to Hajjaj. They fought and defeated Shabeeb. He escaped towards Persia and then to Kirman. Sufyan bin Abru followed him and had a last fight at the bridge of Ahwaz. Shabeeb while crossing the bridge fell from his horse and was drowned in the river. 77H-One leader of Khwarij named Qatri escaped to Tibristan. Hajjaj sent Sufyan bin Abro towards Tibristan. Sufyan defeated Qatri and killed him. Like this 24 years of the problem of Khwarij ended who had destroyed the peace of the country and stopped the rising of Umma.

81-83H-Rebellion Abdur Rehman bin Ashas

Abdur Rehman bin Ashas commander of Hajjaj became against Hajjaj. He had to fight for 2 years till he got victory.

Victory of Iraq

71H
(690AD) -Abdul Malik attacked on Iraq. Musab bin Zubair fought bravely and gave up his life. Abdul Malik captured Iraq.

Victory of Hijaz

72H (691AD) -Hajjaj bin Yousuf was sent to attack on Makka. Abdullah bin Zubair RA was martyred on J. Akhir 73H. Abdul Malik returned his body to Asma RA and was burried in Hujun- Makka.

Now Abdul Malik was the only Khalifa/Caliph of the entire muslim world.

73-75H-Hajjaj
remained Governor of Hijaz.75-86H - Hajjaj was Governor of Iraq.

Victories:-

77H (696AD) - Harqala-Rome.

Victories of Eastern Territories

79H
(698AD) -Marv 80H (699AD) -Kush

Muhallab crossed river Balkh and captured Kush. They agreed on peace treaty.

82H (701AD) -Muhallab returned to Marv. He made his son Yazeed the Ruler of Marv.83H (702AD) -Muhallab at the time of death called his 10 sons and made God fearing advices and asked them to remain united. He died in Zilhaj 83H.

Victories of Africa

69H (688AD) -Qirvan & Mumsh

When Abdul Malik got time he made Zohair bin Qays Governor of Africa and ordered to attack on Qirvan with a great army. When Zohair reached Qirvan Kaseela the barbarian ruler left to Mumsh. Zohair attacked on Mumsh and after fierce fighting Kaseela alongwith several Barbarian & Roman chiefs were killed in the battle field.

72H (691AD) -When Zohair reached Barqa the Romans attacked with a huge army.

Zohair was not prepared for that but he fought bravely and was martyred with all his companions. Abdul Malik was shocked too much but he could not do anything because he was busy fighting with Abdullah bin Zubair.

74H (693AD)-Qartajna

Hassaan bin Noman was made the Governor of Africa. He attacked with a huge army on Qartajna the biggest kingdom of Africa killed the Barbarians & Romans. They escaped to Silsil & Spain. Wherever he knew about the power of Barbarians & Romans he crushed them. He

61

knew about Queen Kahina. He attacked on her but muslims were defeated. Hassaan returned to Barqa.

Abdul Malik was busy fighting with the Khwarij therefore could not sent help.

The queen ruled for 5 more years.

78H (697AD) -Africa( completely)

Abdul Malik sent a huge army to Hassaan. He attacked on Queen Kahina arrested her and killed her.After this defeat muslims again got control on entire Africa. Several barbarians accepted Islam. Hassaan came back to Qirvan and started spreading Islam in the barbarians and a huge quantity accepted Islam.

Victories of Northern Area

70H (689AD) -When Abdul Malik was busy fighting with Musab bin Zubair, the Romans attacked on Northern Shaam. So he made peace treaty with Romans.

80H (699AD) -Qisarya-Rome

Again started attack on Rome and first captured Qisaria.

81H (700AD) -Qalqeela-Rome

Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin Abdul Malik captured Qalqeela.

84H
(703AD) -Maseesa-Rome

Ubaydullah captured Maseesa. Muslims first time settled there. A fort was Built and 300 army was deputed for protection.

86H (705AD) - Fort Boolaq & Akhram.

4- Waleed bin Abdul Malik

86H - 96H.
705-715AD. = 10 yrs.

Age:- 51 yrs.

Birth:-50H in Damascus.

Death:-J.Sani 96H

Hajaj remained Governor General of Iraq arab & ajam. Right hand of Waleed. Brave but cruel.

Hajjaj died in Shwal 95H at the age of 54. He was good Qari & Hafiz. He put the punctuations in Quran for non-arabs. He was the best arab speaker. He crushed the rioters during Abdul Malik. Hajjaj made maximum victories in 20 yrs.

Qualities of Waleed

He was not a scholar but a good ruler.

In
88H he expanded and reconstructed Masjid Nabvi under the supervision of Umar bin Abdul Aziz Ra Governor of Madina. Experts from Sham & Room were called for construction.In 87H he started construction of a great beautiful Jama Masjid in Damascus and completed in 8 years. Most precious stones & marbles were used in construction. Roof & wall was made of gold tiles on which decoration was done by jewels. Chandeliers were made of jewels and hanged by golden chains. A Mehrab-e-Sahaba was made in which a big gem/jewel was hanged which use to shine and glitter the masjid even after extinguishing the lamps.He ruled successfully. His entire period was in Jehad and victories. He had 4 great commanders 1-Mohammed bin Qasim 2-Qotayba bin Muslim 3-Moosa bin Naseer 4-Muslima bin Abdul Malik, who made great victories in Europe, Northern Area & Asia.

Ruled on:- Arabian Peninsula, Sham, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa upto Maghrib, Spain, Iraq arab & ajam, Khurasan, Marv, Balkh, Bukhara, Samarqand, Tashqand, Farghana, Kashghar, Turkistan, Afghanistan, Sindh, Multan.

Victories

87H (705AD)- Bukhara

88H (706AD) - Jarsuma & Ratwana.

89H (707AD) - Manorqa Islands.

91H (709AD)- Madain & Azarbaijan.

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92H (710AD) - Spain by Tariq bin Ziyad.

93H (711AD) - Debal (Sindh),Multan by Mohammed bin Qasim. Karkh, Khwarzam, Baida, Samarqand.

94H (712AD) - Kabul,Shas(Tashkent),Farghana(Uzbekistan).

95H (713AD) - Muqan

96H (714AD) - Toos.

Victories by Mohammed bin Qasim

Victory of Sindh

Some arab traders died in Sirandeep island. The kind king of Sirandeep returned their family to Iraq by ship with valuable gifts for Waleed bin Abdul Malik. On the way at Deebal the police of Raja Dahir looted the goods and arrested the women & children. One woman cried out " Oh Hajjaj help us." This news reached Hajjaj.

Hajjaj sent Abdullah Aslami with 6,000 army but he was defeated and martyred. Then he sent Budayl bin Bijilly. He fell down from the horse and martyred. Third time Hajjaj sent his very young brother or nephew Mohammed bin Qasim of only 17 years age with 6,000 army and made him the Governor of Sindh.

Mohammed bin Qasim came to Makran prepared his army and advanced towards Sindh.

Letter of Hajjaj to Mohammed bin Qasim:-

Wherever you camp dig trenches all around. Most of the night spend in worshipping. Always remain busy in reciting Quran. Make zikr of Allah and ask help from Allah. Install the catapult named Urus, aiming towards the temple.

93H (711AD) -He captured Qanzpur (Panjgur). Then Armabeel(Arman Bela).

94H (712AD) -Sieged Deebal city, stoned with the great catapult captured the city. Constructed a Jama masjid and settled 4,000 muslims. Captured the cities on way.

95H (713AD) -Crossed river Sindh fought fiercely with Raja Dahir. Raja Dahir was killed in the battlefield. He advanced victorious defeated the queen in Darawarh. Then he defeated Jai Singh s/o Raja Dahir.

95H (713AD) -Captured Sadandri, the people became muslim. Captured Ror and constructed a Jama masjid.96H (714AD) -Captured Sika crossed river Biyas and captured Multan.

The gold obtained from Multan was dumped in a room of size 30'x24'. Therefore Multan was called the "Mine of gold" by Arabs.

The total booty obtained from Sindh valued 12,000,000 Dirham.

In Multan he heard the news of death of Hajjaj.

96H (714AD) -He advanced towards Keeraj, captured the cities on way and defeated Raja Dohar of Keeraj and killed him.

Waleed died and kindled the light of Islam in Sindh by Mohammed bin Qasim.

Victories by Qutayba bin Muslim

Victory of Northern Area upto China

86H (704AD) -Hajjaj made Qutaiba bin Muslim Governor of Khurasan.

He crossed river Jeejoon and started following victories:-

86H (704AD)

Saghanyan:-Shah Saghanyan handed over his territory.

Akhroon & Shooman (Takharistan):-Shah Akhroon & Shooman made peace treaty.

Farghana:-Commander Saleh captured cities of Farghana.

87H (705AD)

Bukhara:-Captured the city Baykand of Bukhara. The booty obtained was more than Khurasan.

88H (706AD)

Noshkat:-People of Noshkat requested for peace.

Amsana:-People of Amsana requested for peace.

The Turks, Saghad & People of Farghana attacked jointly Qutayba defeated them badly.

89H (707AD) -Victory of Bukhara

                                                63

Kharqana Sifly:-Defeated a large army of the enemy and advanced to Bukhara but could not succeed.

90H (708AD) -Bukhara:-Reattacked on Bukhara and after fierce fighting it was captured. Shah Turk Khaqan & his son was also wounded.

Shah Saghad was so afraid that he requested for peace.

91H (709AD)-Riot of Nezak Chief of Badghees

Nezak collected the Chief's of Bulkh, Marvrose, Taliqan, Faryab, Jozjan & Kabul and rioted against Qutayba.

Qutayba advanced to Taliqan after fierce fighting defeated Chief of Taliqan. Then defeated the chief's of Faryab, Jozjan & Kabul. Then he followed Nezak but he hid himself in Fort Kurz. Qutayba with great effort arrested him and by order of Hajjaj killed him and his 700 rioters.

93H (711AD) -Khwarzam Shah requested for peace which was accepted.

94H (712AD) -Saghad (Samarqand).

Qutayba advanced to Samarqand. They collected the neighboring rulers King Shash, Khaqan China & Ruler of Farghana and prepared a great army including their prince & son of Chief's. The enemy fought bravely but was defeated and most of the prince & Chief's son were killed in the battlefield. The fort was destroyed with catapult. Ghauzak handed over Samarqand. Muslims entered victorious. Qutayba according to peace treaty ordered to burn the idols. Ghauzak said I advise you not to burn the idols otherwise you will be destroyed. Qutayba said then I will burn it myself. 50,000 misqal gold was collected. When they saw the helplessness of their god. Majority of them accepted Islam.

Qutayba constructed a mosque and Abdullah bin Muslim was made the Hakim of Samarqand.

95H (713AD) -Victory of Shash, Farghana & Kashan. Qutayba after victory returned to Marv.

96H (714AD) -Qutayba took a great army alongwith their families settled in Samarqand and the men advanced to Kashghar border city of China. Captured Kashghar and entered inside China. Khqan China became afraid and requested for peace, which was accepted. Qutayba returned to Marv. In the beginning of battle Qutayba heard the news of death of Waleed.

Victories by Moosa bin Naseer

Victory in Europe

Victory of Spain

Moosa bin Naseer:-Governor of Africa

Tariq bin Ziyad:-Commander
( freed slave) of Moosa bin Naseer.

Yulyan(Count Julian):-Leader of Greece was Ruler of Fort Sabta at the North shore of Morocco.

Rozreeq(Roderick):-King of Spain.

Count Julian became enemy of King Roderick because he raped his daughter.

Count Julian wanted to take revenge with King Roderick so he came to Moosa bin Naseer told the whole story and offered his help in attacking on King Roderick.

Moosa bin Naseer was already planning to attack on Spain he took permission from Waleed

91H (709AD) -Moosa sent Tareef with 500 army with Count Julian. They anchored at Port Jazeera and came back victorious with handsome of booty.

92H (710AD) -Moosa sent Tariq bin Ziyad alongwith Count Julian with 7,000 army to attack on Spain.

Tariq anchored at eastern coast burnt his ships, stood up on a hillock and said now there is only two way either victory or martyrdom. Then he gave a spiritual speech which motivated the army.

This hillock was named Jabalut Tariq and still called with little change Gibraltar. By chance a famous commander Theodomir was nearby. He attacked with great army but was defeated badly and came running to Roderick.

Roderick came to Capital Tulaytla collected a huge army and advanced from Qurtaba with 100,000 army. When Tariq knew about this huge army he informed Moosa. Moosa sent 5,000 army.

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Rmzan 92H (710AD) -Both the armies faced at Shazoona city. Tariq gave a spiritual speech. By the name of Allah muslims attacked bravely and after 8 days of fierce fighting muslims got victory. Thousands of enemy were killed and drowned in the river behid them King Roderick was also drowned.

8 days fight changed the history of Undlus/Spain.

For 800 years the fate of Undlus/Spain was decided in favour of muslims.

Moosa spread his army in different directions and captured following cities:-

Qurtaba-By commander Mughees

Mersia-Captured from Moroccan commander Tadmir/Theodomir and haned over to him.

Capital Tulaytla:-By Tariq.

North western province Jaleeqia:- By Tariq.

Rmzan 93H (711AD) -Moosa bin Naseer anchored at the coast of Undlus/Spain. Count Julian welcomed him and in his guidance

Captured following cities:-

Qarmoona-

Ashbelya-
Recaptured by Abdul Aziz s/o Moosa.Marda/Merida-Queen Agelona was arrested and married to Abdul Aziz s/o Moosa.

Moosa came to capital Tulaytla where he was given an honourable welcome by Tariq.

Moosa & Tariq captured entire Spain.

Victory in France

Moosa wanted to capture Europe so he advanced in France.

Captured few border cities of France.

But was called back by Waleed to Sham.

Handed over to his son Abdul Aziz as Ruler of Undlus/Spain.

Return of Moosa from Spain to Sham

Moosa reached Sham when Khalfa Waleed was giving Juma khutba(Friday speech) on the member of great Jame Umaya Masjid. Khalifa embraced Moosa and granted him Royal dress. He then praised & thanked Almighty Allah for the victories and prayed for further success. After prayer Moosa presented 30 slave princes, 30,000 slave girls, 100,000 slaves and 3 big carts of gold, silver & precious jewels.

Victories of Muslima bin Abdul Malik

Muslima alongwith his nephew Abbas bin Waleed
kept on attacking on Roman territories.

He captured the following:-

Fort Towana, Fort Buleq, Fort Akhram, Fort Bulis, Fort Amureen, Ququm & Qamoonia.

5- Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik

96H - 99H.
715-717AD.= 2 yrs. 8 months.

Age:- 45 yrs.

Birth:- 54H in Madina.

Death:- Safar 99H.

Qualities:-
Religious, pious, had the ambition of spreading Islam, that's why died, away from the capital in Marj Wabiq-Qansreen.

He stopped music & song.

He appointed Umar bin Abdul Aziz as Khalifa/Caliph.

Umar bin Aziz Ra was his Wazeer/Minister.

1-Mohammed bin Qasim:-
Killed in 96H by Saleh- Governor of Iraq in revenge of his brother Adam-Kharijee killed by Hajjaj.

2-Qutayba bin Muslim:- Killed in 96H by Wakee Tamimi one of his own commander in a battle for rioting against Khalifa Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik.

3-Moosa bin Naseer:- Died in 97H in house arrest in Madina.

Victories

97H (716AD) -Qahistan & Jarjan-Tibristan:- This was captured by Saeed bin Aas at the time of Kh.Usman GhaniRA 65

People of this area rioted and left Islam.

Yazeed bin Muhallab-Governor of Khurasan attacked with 120,000 army on Turks and captured Qahistan.

One brave muslim Ibne Abi Sabra cut off the head of Shah Vailum. So Shah Jarjan requested for peace, so it was captured on peace treaty. Great amount of booty was obtained.

98H (717AD) -Attack on Qustuntunia/Constantinople. Sulaiman sent his brother Muslima bin Abdul Malik with 120,000 army by land and 120,000 army by sea to attack on Qustuntunia. During the siege due to disloyalty of one of the muslim commander Lyon and death of Kh.Sulaiman, Kh.Umar bin Abdul Aziz called back the army.

The army returned with great loss.

6-Umar bin Abdul Azeez Ra.

99 - 101H. 717-720AD.= 2.5 yrs.

Father:- Abdul Aziz bin Marwan bin Hakam

Mother:- Umme Asim binte Asim bin Umar bin Khattab(Grand daughter of Umar RA).

99H - 101H. = 2 yrs. 5 months

Age:- 40 yrs.

Birth:- 61H

Death:-Rajab 101H. In Damascus.

Qualities

From childhood studied in Madina by Mohaddis Saleh bin Kaysan Ra, Anas bin Malik RA and other Sahaba & Tabeen RA.

Pious, humble, god fearing & simple living.

His mother was grand daughter of Umar RA and his wife Fatima was daughter of Kh.Abdul Malik.

86H - 93H:- Governor of Madina.

96H - 99H:- Governor General of Madina.

He established true Islamic state, peace, justice & honesty. Returned taxes taken by previous Caliphs by cruelty.

He stopped cursing Ali RA in Khutba(Friday speech).

His wife deposited happily all her jewelries in Baitul mal/Public treasury and the precious diamond gifted by her father Kh.Abdul Malik.

Martyred by poisoning.

101H (720AD) -Muslim forces crossed Pyrenees and captured Narbonne.

7-Yazeed bin Abdul Malik

101H - 105H.
720-724AD.= 4 yrs. 1 month.

Age:- 38 yrs. Good in the beginning but changed later.

Birth:-65H

Death:-Shaban 105H near Damascus.

101H-Muslima bin Abdul Malik crushed the riots of Yazeed bin Mohallab and family.

102H-Musayab bin Bishr fought and got free the muslims siezed in Castle Bahily of Samarqand.

103H-Saeed Harshi-Governor of Khurasan attacked on Samarqand and killed a large number of Turks arrested them and brought the booty.

104H-Jarrah bin Abdullah Hakami-Governor Armenia & Azarbaijan advanced towards Turkistan. At Nahran after fierce fighting muslims got victory and Turks ran back.

Jarrah advanced towards Balanjar attacked on a strong fort of Turks. After fierce fighting muslims got victory and followed the Turks killed a large number and captured the nearby vicinity.

105H-Jarrah advanced further captured Bilade Lan arrested large number of Turks and returned with large quantity of booty. The continuous victory of Jarrah, the Turks became afraid and again peace was established in Turkistan.

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8-Hisham bin Abdul Malik

105H - 125H.
724-743AD.= 20 yrs. Appx.

Age:- 55 yrs. .

Birth:- 72H Damascus

Death:-R.Sani 125H Damascus

Qualities:-
He is counted as the best Khalifa/Caliph of Banu Umaya. He was religious, pious, ingenious, gentle, courageous & modest. He was brilliant & intelligent. He use to eat simple food and wear simple dress.

Jaad bin Darham raised the faith of Khalqe Quran. He was assassinated.

Ghilan bin Yunus raised the idea of Qadria. He was also assassinated.

Ruled on:- Muslim world captured till previous Caliphs.

Victories

Khurasan till China border

107H-Muslim bin Saeed
faced 200,000 Turks in command of the Son of Khaqan. Muslim fought bravely and fiercely. Few thousand muslims defeated the huge army killed Turks & Samarqand's famous commanders also the Son of Khaqan.

108H-Asad bin Abdullah attacked on Khatal & Ghaur and returned victorious with booty.

109H-Ashrus bin Abdullah became the Governor of Khurasan. He appointed an elderly person Abul Saida for preaching Islam. The Turks started entering Islam in huge number. When they were asked to obey the obligatory commandments and memorise the Quran they apostatized.

and rioted with the help of people of Samrqand. Ashrus fought and defeated them.

112H-Junaid bin Abdur Rehman was made the Governor of Khurasan. He was in Samarqand when he heard about the attack on Bukhara by Khaqan. Junaid reached Bukhara fought bravely and defeated the Turks.

116H-Riot of Haris bin Sareej:-Asim bin Abdullah was appointed Governor of Khurasan. He crushed the rioters, but Haris flew away.

119H-Asad bin Abdullah was made Hakim of Khurasan. He attacked on the tribe Khatal and captured their big Fort. They left for China.

119H-Asad had fight with Khaqan at Joozjan. He defeated Khaqan followed him and killed thousands of Turks and obtained large quantity of booty.

119H-Korsool a Turk Commander in Chief killed Khaqan on personal enmity amongst each other, and like this Allah saved the muslims from a big enemy.

120H-Nasar bin Sayar was made Hakim Khurasan. He advanced towards Shash and he faced the Turk Commander in Chief Korasool. Korasool was arrested assassinated and hanged beside the river bank for lesson of Turks. Haris escaped to Faryab.Nasar advanced to Farghana. Ruler of Farghan signed peace treaty.

Azarbaijan & Arminia

107H-Muslima bin Abdul Malik was posted as Governor of Azarbaijan & Arminia. He sent his assistant Haris bin Umar Tai. He captured several cities from Turks.

110H-Muslima advanced himself towards the Turkish territory. Khaqan with the Turks fought bravely but was defeated and escaped.

111H-Jarrah was again made the Governor. He attacked and captured Madina Bayda.

People of Khizr & Turks attacked on muslims with great army defeated the muslims and Jarrah was martyred.

111H-Hisham sent Saeed Harshi. He attacked bravely and after fierce fighting at river Beeltan defeated the Turks. Thousands were killed and drowned in river.

113H-Hisham again sent Muslima bin Abdul Malik to Arminia & Azarbaijan. He captured Balanjar & its entire vicinity.

114H-Hisham called back Muslima and sent Marwan bin Mohammed with 120,000 army. He captured entire Azarbaijan & Arminia & all the cities of Khizr upto Caspian Sea/Bahre Khizr. Ruler of Khizr flew away to bordering area.

Victories of Asia Kochak/Anatolia

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Marwan bin Mohammed, Muslima bin Abdul Malik, Moavia bin Hisham & Sulaiman bin Hisham fought bravely and captured important forts & cities of Roman Kingdom.

112H-Qaysaria- Rome.

113H-Battal a famous brave Commander captured Hanjra.

117H-Qunya & Kharshna.

Naval fleets also use to attack on Roman Territories.

Abdur Rehman bin Moavia bin Khadeej was Ameerul Bahar/ Admiral & Abdullah bin Uqba was a distinguished Naval Officer.

During the period of Hisham following actions were taken:-

-In Turkistan & Azarbaijan the strength of Turks& Tatars were crushed.

-Revolt in Sindh was crushed and muslims were populated.

-Riots in North Africa was also crushed.

-Administration & Management of Undlus/Spain was organized.

-Attacks on France were made. Lyon & Vienne was sacked.

Imamat Movement

Two families also had the desire of Khilafat.1-Families of Ali RA. 2-Family of Abbas RA.

1st. Imam-Mohammed bin Hanfia:- From Ali RA family supported by Shiyane Ali of Iraq.

Already mentioned in Khilafat Abdul Malik.

2nd. Imam-Abu Hashim Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Hanfia.

3rd. Imam-Mohammed bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas:- Imamat transferred from Alvieen to Abasieen. He made the markaz/center of the movement at Kufa & Khurasan because the majority of Shiyan Ali was at these two places. Mohammed bin Ali organized the movement and spread his agents throughout muslim world to overthrow the Khilafat of Banu Umaya.

4th. Imam-Ibraheem bin Mohammed:-In his time a great Dayee/Instigator changed this movement into Revolution.

9- Waleed bin Yazeed bin Abdul Malik

125H - 126H.
743-744AD.= 1 yr.

Age:- 36 yrs. Great sinner, cruel like Pharao. People got fed up and killed him.

10- Yazeed Naqis bin Waleed bin Abdul Malik

126H - 127H. 744AD.

Age:- 35 yrs. His father was king and mother was daughter of King Feroze of Rome.

Pious and totally against wine & music.

He strengthened Islamic world but ruled only 6 months and died.

11- Ibraheem bin Waleed bin Abdul Malik-

127H. 70 days only.

Age:-

Killed in 133H in battle with Saffah Abbasi.

12- Marwan bin Mohammed bin Marwan-

127H - 132H.
745-750AD=5 yrs. Age:- 60 yrs. Brave, clever & good rider.

Remained Governor General of different places before Khilafat.

105H- Conquered Qunya- Turkey.

His whole life was spent in fighting with Khwarij, Abu Muslim Khurasani the Dayee/Instigator of Imamat movement and rioters.

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132H- In this last fight Abbasi's killed Amvi's in large number and more than that were drowned in the river. Marwan was killed in Egypt by Uncle of Saffah Abbasi.

End of Khilafate Banu Umaya.

Banu Umaya Governing System

Kingdom was divided into 5 provinces

1-Hijaz, Yeman, Central Arab.

2-Egypt and its vicinity.

3-Iraq Arab(
Kufa,Basra,Babul etc.).Kufa was Capital.

Iraq Ajam(Persia,Uman,Bahrain,Kirman,Sajistan,Kabul,Khurasan,Mavaraun Nahar,Sindh,Punjab)

4-City of Aljazeera,Armenia,Azarbaijan,Asia Kochak/Anotolia, Cyprus.

5-North Africa. Capital Qeervan. Undlus/Spain,Sardania,Billiar. Capital Qurtaba. Governor Africa posted the Hakim of Spain.

Organization

Land force

Naval force- Ship Industry

Police

Treasury

Arabic Language:-All places translators were posted to run the offices in Arabic.

Royal Court:- Abdul Malik was the first to form a Royal Court and posted a guard at the door.

Court of Justice:- Same as it was in the time of Khulfa Rashideen. Chief Justice appointed by the Khalifa/Caliph.

Agricultural development:- Ameer Moavia RA introduced New Canal System was developed in each city. Other Khulafa also made improvement.

Road System:- Simple roads were made.

Guest Houses:- Guest houses were constructed at road sides.

Wells:- Wells were dug for caravans.

Hospitals:- Waleed was the first to open hospitals.

Poor Fund:- Waleed was the first to help Orphans,Poor,Old & disabled persons.

Buildings:- Ameer Moavia was the first to built grand buildings.

Mosques:- Abdul Malik extended and rebuilt beautiful Masjid Nabvi, Sakhra dome in Jerusalem &

Masjide Aqsa. Waleed s/o Abdul Malik built Jame Masjid Damascus &

Masjide Nabvi.

New Cities:- Hajjaj developed Wast. Abdul Malik-Ramla. Uqba bin Nafe-Qeervan. Etc.

Postal System:- Ameer Moavia is the first to introduce postal system. Fast horses were ready at every 12 miles.

Mint:- Abdul Malik established Mint in Damascus. Coined Gold Dinar & Silver Dirham. Others in Iraq & Jazeera.

Textile Industry:- Abdul Malik opened Textile factory. Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik built advanced Textile Industry.

Paper Industry:- 88H-Yousuf bin Umar built Paper Factory in Makka.

Moosa bin Naseer in Maghrib. In that time such paper were made in which face can be seen.

Prosperity:-
In the time of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz general public were so prosperous that nobody was there to take Zakat.

Darul Uloom:- Every place Madaris/Schools were opened.

Quran:-Hifze Quran was made common.

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Tafseer:-First Tafseer written by Saeed Ibne Jubair student of Abdullah bin Abbas was ordered by Abdul Malik.

Hadees:- Hadees also compiled by Saeed Ibne Jubair & Imam Shahab Zehri.

Umar bin Abdul Aziz opened schools for memorising & compiling Hadees.

History:- Skill of History
started at the time of Banu Umaya and advanced during Kh.Hisham.

Arab civilization

At the time of Banu Umaya Civilization was advanced. Arabs gave truth, honesty &

Justice to the public whether arab or non-arab, muslim or non-muslim. Freedom to follow their own religion.

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KHULAFA BANU UMAYA

41H - 132H. 661-750 AD = 90 years

Capital:- Damishq/Damascus

Total Khulafa =13

1-Ameer Moavia RA bin Abu Sufyan bin Harab bin Umaya

Age:-75 yrs.

41H-60H (661-680AD)=19 yrs.4 months.

2-Yazeed bin Moavia - 48 yrs.

60H-64H (680-683AD)=3 yrs.9 months.

3-Marwan bin Hakam-62 yrs.

64H-65H.(684-685AD)=1 yr.

4-Abdul Malik bin Marwan bin Hakam bin Abul Aas bin Umaya

Age:-60 yrs.

65H-73H(685-692AD)=8 yrs.on Egypt & Sham.

73H-86H(692-704AD)=13 yrs. Khalifa Islamia.

5-Waleed bin Abdul Malik - 51 yrs.

86H-96H(704-714AD)=10 yrs.

6-Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik - 39 yrs.

96H-99H(714-717AD)=3 yrs.

7-Umar bin Abdul Aziz bin Marwan

Age:-40 yrs.

99H-101H(717-719AD)=2 yrs.

8-Yazeed bin Abdul malik-34 yrs.

101H-105H(719-723AD)=4 yrs.

9-Hisham bin Abdul Malik-55 yrs.

105H-125H(723-742AD)=20 yrs.

10-Waleed bin Yazeed bin Abdul Malik-36 yrs.

125H-126H(742-743AD)=1 yr.

11-Yazeed Naqis bin Waleed bin Abdul Malik-35 yrs.

126H-127H(743-744AD)=1 yr.

12-Ibraheem bin Waleed bin Abdul Malik-

127H-127H(744-744AD)=70 days.

13-Marwan bin Mohammed bin Marwan-60 yrs.

127H-132H(745-750AD)=5 yrs.

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Ameer's in Spain during Umaya Khilafat

                  Ameer                                    Khalifa

92-93H:- Tariq bin Ziyad Ra.              Waleed bin Abdul Malik.

93-95H:- Moosa bin Naseer.                                  "

95-97H:- Abdul Aziz bin Moosa.          Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik.

97-98H:- Ayub bin Habib.                                      "

98-100H:- Hur bin Abdur Rahman.      Umar bin Abdul Aziz.

100-102H:- Samah bin Malik.              Yazeed bin Abdul Malik.

102-103H:- Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Ghafqi.       "

103-107H:- Utba bin Saheen Alkalbi.                    "

107H:- Ghadra bin Abdullah Fahri.      Hisham bin Abdul Malik.

107-108H:- Usman bin Nasah.                                "

108-109H:- Huzaifa bin Al-Ahwas.                         "

109-110H:- Al-Haseem bin Abdullah.                     "

110-111H:- Mohammed bin Abdullah.                    "

111-113H:- Abdur Rahman bin Abdullah.               "

113-114H:- Uqba bin Al-Hajjaj.                               "

114-116H:- Abdul Malik bin Al-Qatan.                     "

116-123H:- Uqba bin Al-Hajjaj.                               "

123-124H:- Balakh bin Bashar.                                "

124-125H:- Salba bin Salama.                                  "

125-127H:- Abu Ata bin Zarar.              Waleed bin Yazeed.

127-129H:- Sawa bin Salama.               Marwan bin Mohammed.

129-138H:- Yousuf bin Abdur Rahman                     "

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VOLUME - 3B 

Khilafat Banu Umaya in Undlus/Spain

92H to 898H(710-1493AD)=800 yrs.

Capital at Qurtaba

Total Khulafa Banu Umaya =16

138H - 422H(755-1031AD) =284 yrs.

92H-Kh. Waleed bin Abdul Malik

Governor Africa:- Moosa bin Naseer.

Commander:- Tariq bin Ziyad.

Captured Undlus/Spain.

129-138H-Yousuf bin Abdur Rehman Fahri:-
Last Hakim of Undlus/Spain.

132H-Khilafat Banu Umaya ended except in Spain.

Khilafat Banu Abbas started except in Spain.

Banu Umaya was being killed by Banu Abbas.

138H-Prince Abdur Rehman bin Moavia bin Kh.Hisham. Grand son of Kh.Hisham escaped and reached Spain.

Fought bravely with Hakim Spain Ameer Yousuf bin Abdur Rehman defeated him and took over Spain.

Khilafat Banu Umaya continued in Spain

1-Prince/Khalifa Abdur Rehman

Grand son of Kh.Hisham bin Abdul Malik

138H - 172H.
755-788AD. = 34 yrs.

Age:- 64 yrs.

Birth:- 108H

Death:- 172H

Qualities

Kh.Hisham
trained him to make Khalifa but could not succeed. He was handsome, brave, pious, kind hearted & just minded. He use to visit the sick, lead the funeral prayer even of poor persons.

He never pass time in play and amusement. He was very generous.

Enmity of Family:- Abu Aswad a family member fought upto 149H till he died.

146H-Kh.Abu Jafar Mansoor Abbasi sent his Ameer-Ibne Moghees to attack on Spain.

Sultan with his army fought at Ashbela and defeated Ibne Moghees. Cut off the heads of prisoners and sent to Damascus.

151H-Riot by Yemeni's:- Sultan sent Abdul Malik bin Umar. He crushed the riot. 30,000 persons were killed from both sides.

163H-Sultan wanted to attack on Abbasi Khalifa and take revenge, but he remained busy in crushing the internal revolts/riots.

At the end he succeeded in crushing the riots and brought peace in his kingdom.

Every leader came under his flag and everyone was happy with him because of his Kind behavior. He was amongst those few kings who were popular and liked by everybody.

Great Masjid Qurtaba

Sultan himself participated in building this great mosque.

Size:-600'x250' . North to South 19 arches. 193 pillars of marble. 19 doors of brass on south. 9 doors on East and 9 doors on West gold plated. Minaret 240 ft.high. Daily 4,600 lamps were kindled. Amber,Ood & Loban was burnt for fragrance. Imam's place golden lamp was lightened. Juma/Friday prayer was lead by Sultan himself. Qazi lead the five times prayer.

A geat madrasa was beside the masjid.

Madaris Deenya:- Beside every masjid madrasa was built.

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2-Khalifa Hisham bin Abdur Rehman

172H-180H /788-796AD =7 yrs. 8 months.

Age:- 40 yrs.

Birth:- 140H-Qurtaba.

Death:-180H-Qurtaba. A large number of people offered his funeral prayer.

Qualities

Hisham
was very religious, tried to follow Umar bin Abdul Aziz RA. Always busy in good deeds.

He use look after the poor and sick walking in the lanes of Qurtaba with simple dress.

He was very punctual of Salat/Prayer and use to call people towards Salat.

He had good faith on Abdul Malik bin Anas Ra. Therefore Maliki mazhab spread in Spain at his time. Because of his courage,honesty,justice & generosity people gave him the title of Al- Adil/The righteous.

He completed the construction of
Great Mosque Qurtaba.

He influenced the people by his character & behavior.

172H-Prince Sulaiman & Abdullah attacked on Qurtaba claiming for kingdom but both were defeated.

173H-Arbunia-France was recaptured.

175H-Alba & Ardhulqula's Christians revolted. Royal forces crushed them.

175H-Wazeer-Yousuf Ibne Bakht crushed the riots in Province Jaliqia. Chief Bermudo left his territory.

176H-Christians of Alba & Ardhulqula again revolted. Wazeer Abdul Malik went and crushed them.

Religious Schools/Madaris:- Opened Madaris and looked after the Scholars.

Hospitals:-Looked after the Physicians himself. Physicians were mostly jews.

3-Khalifa Al-Hakam bin Hisham

180H-206H 796-822AD = 26 yrs.

Age:-48 yrs.

Birth:- 158H

Death:-206H

Qualities

Hakam
was a scholar having the characters of his father. He was strict but not persistent.

He use to accept his fault. He dealt with his enemy/rioters very wisely.

He was religious & god fearing. He was not indulged in play & amusement.

Wazeer Aala/Chief Minister:- Ameer Abdul Karim bin Moghees his master.

Wazeer/Ministers:- Allama Ishaq bin Al Munzir. Allama Abbas bin Abdullah. Saeed bin Hussain. All were expert in their field.

Qazi ul Quzzat/Chief Justice:- Ibne Umar. Mohammed Ibne Basheer. His father Saeed Ibne Basheer was Chief Justice at Sultan Abdur Rehman and his justice was well known throughout muslim world.

Story of justice

Once Hakam built a palace and a portion of the land was of a widow and she didn't want to sell her land. She claimed to the Qazi. On the opening ceremony Qazi brought a sack filled it with soil and asked Hakam to help him in lifting the sack.

Hakam thought it a joke so tried to lift it but it was too heavy so he became tired. Qazi said Oh Hakam you cannot lift this much of soil, so on the Day of Judgment how will you lift the load of the land of this widow siezed for your palace. Hakam wept and ordered to return her land. That portion of the palace was handed over to her.

Revolts/Riots & Victories

186H-French captured Barcelona. Wazeer Abdul Karim turned them out.

192H-Lazreeq siezed Tartosha by

Conspiracy of French king. Prince 2nd. went and turned out the christians.

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200H-Wazeer Abdul Karim crushed the French christians revolt and captured Jaliqia.

201H-Christian Priests near Taleetla use to tempt the christians to revolt . Prince Abdur Rehman 2nd. with wisdom collected the rioters on feast. Arrested them and cut off their heads.

202H-Imam Yahya bin Yahya alongwith new muslims collected in thousands and sieged Qurtaba. Hakam sent his cousin with selected riders to burn their houses. When the rioters saw this they returned to protect their houses. Hakam with his army from back and his cousin Abdullah from front slaughtered them all and arrested the scholars.

The rest of the rioters ran away with their family to Africa. When the mutiny ended Hakam freed the scholars.

The rest of his life passed with peace.

4-Khalifa Abdur Rehman Sani(2nd.) bin Al Hakam

206H-238H
822-852AD = 31 yrs.

Age:-

Birth:-

Death:- 238H

Qualities

He
himself was scholar and respected the scholars. He was so religious that once in Ramzan he went to his wife in daytime. He asked Imam Yahya its Kaffara(Expiation for sin). Imam said 2 months fasting. Abdur Rehman fasted for 2 months.

He respected & honoured the skillful people. His popularity reached far places due to which Man of wisdom, writers, courageous, religious, pious, orators, poets, learned, swordsmen & skillful peoples started coming from Khilafat Abbasia to Undlus/Spain.

Due to the companionship of great scholars his awe & dignity terrified the world. Each kingdom & government felt it an honour to have friendship with him.

Revolts/Riots & Victories

208H-Ameer Abdul Karim sent to Qustula came victorious.

224H-Abdullah & Ibne Moosa sent to Jaliqia liqia turned out the rioters.

226H-Ibne Moosa crushed the French rioters and captured the places in France where Moosa bin Naseer reached.

229H-Sultan sent his son Mohammed to crush the christians riots. He siezed the city fought bravely killed the christians captured the city Gharsia and killed the King also. This battle ended the christians riots.

230H-Ultimately Tufilish- King of Qustuntunia spread his hand of friendship towards the Sultan. Sultan sent his Wazeer Yahya Al Ghizal with precious gifts to Qustuntunia. The King gave warm welcom to him. Yahya returned with success.

Forts were built along the shore to protect the seaside attack.

Country Development

Sultan
payed attention towards country development.

-Constructed water reservoirs and supplied water through pipelines.

-Constructed roads, bridges, mosques & madaris. Extended
Great Qurtaba masjid.

-Warship fleet was made to patrol along the sea shore.

Royal Advisor:-Imam Yahya bin Abdul Malik.

Qazi ul Quzzat:-Eisa bin Yahya bin Abdul Malik.

Each and ever person muslim & non-muslim enjoyed peace, tranquility & comfort in his kingdom.

5-Khalifa Mohammed Awal bin Abdur Rahman Sani

238H - 274H 852-886AD = 35 yrs.

Age:-

Birth:-

Death:-Safar 274H.

He crushed the christians because rhey started insulting the muslims.

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He destroyed the Churches because it became the center of christian priest creating mutiny in the country.

Civil war started in Spain and ultimately it became out of control of Sultan till he died.

6-Khalifa Al Munzir bin Mohammed Awal

274H - 276H 886-888AD

Age:-

Birth:-

Death:-
276H

The condition of Spain became worst and Civil war continued. Sultan could not control and he was killed.

7-Khalifa Abdullah bin Mohammed Awal

276H - 300H 888-912AD= 24 yrs.

Age:-68 yrs.

Birth:-

Death:-300H

He was very cruel but could not control the situation.

Arabs formed their own government.

Barbarians formed their own government.

Ibne Ghaswan Nasrani captured Gharnata.

Ibnul Hajjaj formed his government in Ashbelia and ruled successfully.

8-Khalifa Abdur Rahman Salis(3rd.) Al Nasir bin Mohammed

300H - 350H
912-961AD = 50 yrs.

Age:-72 yrs.

Birth:-278H

Death:-350H

Qualities

He deserved the title of Khalifa.

He
was great scholar,kind,wise,handsome,gentle & soft spoken. The day he became Sultan people showed happiness.

Sultan from the first day organized and trained the army.

He sent the order throughout the country that whoever will disobey the Royal Command will be killed.

He also appointed bodyguards from muslims & christians.

Sultan started his mission of crushing the revolts. After a little resistance all the revolters surrendered.

Islamic army reached Bostro. Sultan stood up on the fort wall looked at the conquered area and Prayed 2 rikat Salat and thanked Almighty Allah. Till he remained in the fort fasted in thanks to Almighty Allah.

307H-Banu Fatima(Shiya) strength was increasing in N.Africa and they captured the Fort Sibta on North Western shore of Africa. Sultan motivated the people by Scholars against the Shiya and attacked on Sibta captured the Great Fort and the the Coastal Area.

Prepared Naval army fleet which started patroling in Mediterranean sea.308H-Sultan attacked on San Steven and destroyed it. Advanced to Alnavar and killed the christians rioters. Killed the rioters of Fort Muze and returned victorious to Qurtaba.

317H-Title of Al Nasiruddin was given to Sultan.

318H-Sultan
captured the entire lost area in 18 years.

328H-Ambro of Thoda revolted and killed 50,000 muslims and Sultan had to retreat.

Sultan reattacked and took the revenge and ended all the mutiny. The result was that the

Messengers of King of Qustuntunia, France, Germany & Italy attended the court of Sultan.

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Development

Sultan developed the country specially Qurtaba with mosques, palaces, gardens, fountains, bridges & roads.

Great Masjid Qurtaba:-
Length=500 ft. Arches were resting on 1,417 columns of marble with golden carving. The member was made of very costly wood with ivory,gold & jewels carving.

Only the member was made in 7 years with a cost of 350,705 dinar. 10,000 schandliers were lighted. 3 big schandliers were of pure silver the rest of brass. One big schandlier contained 1,480 lamps. 3 servants duty was only to burn the ud & Amber for fragrance. A minaret 108 ft. High with two staircases for ascending & descending is made. People from all over the world still come to visit this mosque.

Qasre Zahra/Zahra Palace:- This was actually a small city called Madinatuz Zahra.

Length=4 miles, East-West Width=3 miles, Norrh-South. This consisted of Royal villas, several gardens with number of fountains. Thousands of houses for army commanders & officers. The boundary wall consisted 15,000 large & heavy gates. The black mountain behind it was planted with dry fruit trees in such a large number that it became green.

The Palace itself was made of arches on 4,316 columns of coloured marble and costly stones. The doors were made of ebony & ivory, carved and decorated with gold & jewels. At the center there was a pond filled with mercury, when the sun rays reflected from the mercury the entire jewelled walls and doors shined so much that it gave a very beautiful and astonishing effect. When the mercury was shaken a little it gave a lightening effect, which frightened the expectators. Two fountains were made and gold plated. 12 birds and animals of gold & jewels were made. From the mouth of each animal water was showering. Besides this palace their were other palaces like:-

Qasr Al Khulafa.

    "   Al Mashuq.

    "   As Surur

    "   At Taj.

    "   Ad Damishq

These were the palaces having no match on the earth.

People came to visit from throughout the world.

There was a big park of animal reserves providing a natural environment.

336H-King of Qustuntunia sent his Ambassador to Spain. When he entered the palace and saw the decorations of the court and grace of Sultan on the throne he was surprised.

The Kings of European countries and other world were very much impressed by the awe & dignity of the Sultan.

Qazi ul Quzzat:- Qazi Munzir

Sultan's humbleness & fear of Allah

Madinatuz Zahra:-Once the courtiers were flattering & praising the Madinatuz Zahra in front of Sultan, when Qazi Munzir entered the court and recited Sura Zukhruf verses 33-35, and advised in such a way that the Khalifa wept too much with tears.

Juma/Friday Prayer:- Sultan prayed few Juma/Friday prayer in the nearby mosque due to business in construction of Madinatuz Zahra. One friday when he came to Great Masjid Qurtaba. Qazi Munzir saw him and warned him in his speech so much that the face of Ameerul Momineen became red with regret & shame. Though he prayed Juma in other mosque but still he was regretful because of fear of Allah.

Istisqa/Famine Prayer:- Once there was famine in Qurtaba. Qazi Munzir alongwith hundred thousands of people collected in the field of Madinatuz Zahra. Announcement of coming of Sultan was made. Qazi Munzir said he should rest in the palace. The words reached to Sultan.

He started weeping. With naked head and naked foot weeping in front of Almighty Allah said "Oh Allah do not harm my people because of

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my sins. Punish me, but remove the trouble & suffering of my people. He wept so much that it srarted raining and people went back wet to their homes".

9-Khalifa Al Hakam Sani(2nd.) Al Mustansar Billah bin Abdur Rahman Al Nasir

350H - 366H
961-976AD = 15 yrs.

Age:-

Birth:-

Death:-366H

Qualities

He
was a great scholar religious minded. Respected the scholars. Followed religion perfectly and instructed the scholars to preach them. He prayed Juma prayer punctually in Great Masjid Qurtaba.

He was of high moral character, very kind hearted.

Punished the wine sellers and drunker.

He honoured the religion and religious scholars so much that one day
Ibraheem Faqeh was giving speech,thousands of students, scholars & Faqeeh were attending the speech. The Royal messenger came and said that Khalifa is waiting for you. Ibraheem said I would have obeyed Ameerul Momineen but you see that I am busy in the work of Allah, after finishing I can come, and then he continued the speech. The messenger fearingly conveyed the message to Khalifa. The messenger came to Faqeeh and said Khalifa conveys salam and says that I am pleased to know that you are busy in the work of Allah. After finishing you may come to Khalifa. Faqeeh said tell the Khalifa that I am old and weak, get the Sana gate opened which is close to mosque so I may come. When the gate was opened Faqeeh went to the Khalifa. Khalifa welcomed him with honour.

Library of Al Hakam

He
was very fond of reading books as well as collecting books. He remained in the company of Scholars from the very beginning. His assembly was full of scholars. His library was so big that only the catalog of Index of books were in 44 volumes having 50 pages in each volume. He had 400,000 books and read all of them. The Famous Scholars came from Qahira/Cairo & other cities to remain in the Court of knowledge are following:- 1-Abu Ali Al Qali Baghdadi.2-Abu Bakr Al Uzraq 3-Ismaeel bin Abdur Rahman.4-Qazi bin Asfi.5-Ahmed bin Waheem.6-Mohammed bin Abdus Salam.7-Zakaria bin Khatab.8-Sabit bin Qasim.

There was no scholar equal to Al Hakam in Spain.

Madaris Deenya

He opened 27 madaris for poor students to get free teaching.

Battles

He was brave and expert in army tactics but he did not like fighting. Some christians tried to create problem but he crushed them immediately.

He had so Dignified and Awe Inspiring personality that no one dare to raise his head against him. The delegates & ambassadors coming to his court were so much impressed that they stood folded handed eyes down in front of his throne.

15 years of his kingdom was peaceful and comfortable.

10-Khalifa Hisham Sani(2nd.) bin Al Hakam

366H - 399H
976-1008AD =33 yrs.

Age:-44 yrs.

Birth:-355H

Death:-399H

Qualities

Hisham was only 11 so his mother Queen Sabih was in power.

1-Wazeer/Minister Al Mansoor

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366H-393H 976-1002AD =26 yrs.

Al Mansoor bin Abi Amir became Wazeer
and broke the power of the Queen, sent Hisham in Harem(female appartment), and took over the power. Father of Al Mansoor was a learned Faqeeh of Darul Uloom Qurtaba.

Al Mansoor completed his studies and remained teacher of Hisham. Step by step he attained the position of Qazi. When the christians on the Northern boundaries started creating disturbance,

Al Mansoor with wisdom took a huge army crushed the christians of Lyon and returned successful.

Al Mansoor now became popular and handled the army with wisdom. He liked the soldiers like his son.

Al Mansoor with his good moral character became beloved of all whether muslims or non-muslims.

Al Mansoor was also religious, pious and God fearing.In 26 years of his wizarat( Ministry) he made 50 Jehad and in all he came victorious.

Death of Al Mansoor

He died in 393H 1002AD and was burried in Madina Salim. He use to collect the dust of his dress after coming back from Jehad, and said to put on his face at burial, might be Allah forgive him. He prepared his shroud by his daughter from the cotton of his private land in which he was buried.

His death was the day of mourning for entire Undlus/Spain.

2-Wazeer/Minister Al Muzaffar

393H-399H 1002-1008AD =6 yrs.

Al Muzaffar bin Al Mansoor
was also good person followed his father and ruled successfully for 6 years. The courtiers in bringing Hisham to rule but he could not. So he was over thrown by Mohammed Sani Mehdi.

11-Khalifa Mohammed Sani(2nd.) Mehdi

399H - 400H

12-Khalifa Sulaiman

400H

13-Khalifa Mohammed Sani(2nd.time)

400H-401H

14-Khalifa Hisham Sani(2nd.time)

401H-402H

15-Khalifa Sulaiman (2nd.time)

402H-406H

16-Khalifa Ali bin Hamood(shiya)

406H-407H

17-Khalifa Qasim bin Hamood(shiya)

407H-409H

18-Khalifa Yahya bin Hamood(shiya)

409H-412H

19-Khalifa Hisham Salis

412H-422H

End of Banu Umaya Kingdom.

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VOLUME - 3C 

Kingdom in Spain

423H to 898H.(1032-1493AD)

Qurtaba was in ciaos for several years and 20 families were ruling in different parts of Spain.

When the christians became strong and started attacking on Arab leaders then in

Al-Moravid enter Spain

479H-580H(1086-1184AD)

479H(1086AD)-King of Ashbelia-Motamid asked help from King of N.Africa-Yousuf bin Tashfeen. He captured Jazeera Al Khadhra and then attacked on christian King Alfanso (vi), defeated him killed thousands of christians in battle.

483H(1090AD)-Yousuf again came for help and defeated Alfanso. Now Yousuf had control on entire Southern Spain. Yousuf died in Morocco in 501H.

502H-Ali bin Yousuf defeated Alfanso, but City Sarqasta was taken away from Muslim.

520H-Muslim philosopher Ibne Rushd born in Qurtaba.

540H-Ali bin Yousuf died in 538H. His son Tashfeen
was defeated by Alfanso and he captured Jazeeratul Khadhra.

540H-Tashfeen died. His son Abu Ishaq came in power.

Al-Mohads Kingdom

542H-634H(1147-1237AD)

550H-Abdul Momin wanted to attack on Spain but he died.

559H-Yousuf bin Abdul Momin defeated Alfanso(viii). Destroyed all the forts and went back to Africa and died in 580H. 580H-Mansoor ruled for 14 years and died in 621H.

621H-Abu Mohammed ruled upto 625H and was killed.

625H-Al Mamoon ruled upto 630H and died.

630H-Kingdom of Spain divided into several parts.

Ibne Hawad on one portion.

Arakan on one portion.

Mohammed bin Al Ahmar King on Gharnata & Hunain.

Jamayat bin Zayd on Balancea.

634H-Christian King took over Qurtaba the Capital of Spain, because the above Muslim Kings started fighting each other and became weak.

642H-Christians took over Balancea from muslim.

644H-Forts between Jeen & Ashbelia joined the Christians.

Muslim kingdom remained in Ashbelia & Gharnata only.

Development & Reforms

568H-Great Mosque at Seville-Spain-largest in the world.

Rulers after Banu Umaya

Ashbelia

414H-1023AD-Qazi Abul Qasim.

434H-1042AD-Al Motazid.

461H-1068AD-Leghaya.

479H-1091AD-AlMotamid.

483H-1095AD-Yousuf bin Tashfeen ( African Kingdom).

It was a beautiful city during muslim rule. It was a cotton market.

5,000 factories were running by water power.

Tulaitla

427H-1035AD-Ismaeel.

429H-1037AD-Yahya Mamoon.

439H-1047AD-Yahya Qadir.

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Gharnata

Upto 634H-Governor from kings of Qurtaba use to rule.

1-Shah Mohammed Al Ahmar

636H-672H
1238-1273AD =36 yrs.

Age:-79 yrs.

Birth:-593H

Death:-672H

Qualities

He was from the generation of SAAD BIN UBADA ANSARI RA. He was a brave Arab rider.

He attacked Southern Spain and captured Qurtaba, Ashbelia & Gharnata.

He established kingdom in Gharnata established a strong true Islamic State.

He
developed Gharnata constructed big palaces and became a beautiful city like Qurtaba

He made Madinatul Hamra like Madinatuz Zahra of Qurtaba.

He constructed masajid & madaris in Gharnata.

He established Darul Mashwara Babusharya. This was beside the masjid where the king assembled with Ulama/Scholars and listened the fiqa & hadees and made mashwara/consultation.

2-Shah Mohammed Sani(2nd.)

672H-702H 1273-1302AD =30 yrs.

He was also a religious kIng and ruled successfully like his father.

3-Shah Mohammed Salis(3rd.)

702H-709H 1302-1309AD =7 yrs.

4-Shah Abul Juyoosh Nasr

709H-713H 1309-1313AD =4 yrs.

His brother Ismaeel overthrew him.

5-Shah Abul Waleed Ismaeel

713H-726H 1313-1325AD =13 yrs.

6-Shah Mohammed Rabe(4th.)

726H-734H 1325-1333AD =8 yrs.

7-Shah Abul Hajjaj yousuf Awal(1st.)

734H-755H 1333-1354AD =21 yrs.

8-Ismaeel/Abu Saeed

755H-765H 1354-1363AD =10 yrs.

Kept on fighting for kingdom.

9-Mohammed Khamis(5th.)

765H-793H 1363-1390AD =28 yrs.

10-Yousuf Sani (2nd.)

11-Mohammed Shashum(6th.)

12-Yousuf Salis(3rd.)

13-Mohammed Haftum(7th.)

837H-842H 1433-1438AD =5 yrs.

14-Yousuf Rabe(4th.)

842H-849H 1438-1445AD =7 yrs.

15-Mohammed Hashtum(8th.)

16-Usman Ismaeel

17-Mohammed Nahum(9th.)

18-Mohammed Dahum(10th)

858H-871H 1453-1466AD

19--Shah Abul Hassan

871H-888H 1466-1483AD

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He was also religious & very brave king. In his time Queen Isabelle of Qustalia was married to Ferdinend and they became the King/Queen of Qushtalia,Nawaz & Arghun. The two sent messengers to Abul Hassaan asking to pay tax. Abul Hassaan said to messengers go and tell your Queen that in the mint of Gharnata coins are not made, now sharp swords are made.

He also ruled bravely & successfully.

887H-King Ferdinend captured Fort Al Hamra and killed thousands of muslim men, women & children.

887H-Abul Hassaan defeated King Ferdinend and recaptured the fort.

888H-His son Abu Abdullah revolted against him so he became disheartened and handed over the kingdom to his brother.

898H-Abu Abdullah kept on fighting with King Ferdinend but ultimately surrendered .

Jan.1493-Handed over the key to King Ferdinend.

Muslim rule of 800 years Ended in Spain. Due to the Civil war amongst the muslims.

After the fall of Gharnata Lord Bishop & King of Qashtalia ordered the muslims to leave their religion and become christian. The mosques were changed into churches. Thousands of muslims were burnt alive.

Mosyo Leban writes in his book'

'Arab Culture':- The hardship & tortures given to poor muslims in Spain was so much that the world history cannot give such an example. If the muslims would have done the same the existence of christians would have finished in Spain.

One million valuable books of muslims were burnt to ashes.

King Qashtalia ordered the muslims to vacate Spain within two months. So after millions being killed the remaining 3 million muslims when left for Africa, on the way 75% of them were killed by christians.

For more than 100 years, killing of muslims continued by christians and by the start of 17th. century muslims were totally turned out from Spain.

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KHULAFA UNDLUS/SPAIN

138H-890H(755-1485AD)=800 yrs.

Banu Umaya Khulafa = 16

Other Sultan = 19

Khulafa banu Umaya

1-Abdur Rahman bin Moavia bin Hisham bin Abdul malik

138H-172H(755-788AD)=34 yrs.

2-Hisham 1st. bin Abdur Rahman

172H-180H(788-796AD)=10 yrs.

3-Hakam 1st. bin Hisham

180H-206H(796-821AD)=26 yrs.

4-Abdur Rahman 2nd. bin Hakam

206H-238H(821-852AD)=32 yrs.

5-Mohammed 1st. bin Abdur Rahman

238H-274H(852-887AD)=36 yrs.

6-Munzir bin Mohammed

274H-276H(887-889AD)=2 yrs.

7-Abdullah bin Mohammed

276H-300H(889-912AD)=24 yrs.

8-Abdur Rahman 3rd.bin Mohammed

300H-350H(912-960AD)=50 yrs.

9-Hakam 2nd.bin Abdur Rahman 3rd.

350H-366H(960-976AD)=16 yrs.

10-Hisham 2nd.bin Hakam 2nd.

366H-399H(976-1008AD)=33 yrs.

11-Mohammed 2nd.bin Abdul Jabbar bin Abdur Rahman

399H-400H(1008-1009AD)=1 yr.

12-Sulaiman bin Hakam 2nd.

400H-400H(1009-1009AD)=6 months.

Mohammed 2nd.(Again)

400H

Hisham 2nd.(Again)

400H-403H(1009-1012AD)=3 yrs.

Sulaiman (Again)

403H-405H(1012-1014AD)=2yrs.

13-Abdur Rahman Murtaza bin Abdul Malik

405H-407H(1014-1016AD)=2 yrs.

Ali bin Hamood(shiya)

407H-408H(1016-1017AD)=1 yr.

Qasim bin Hamood(shiya)

408H-410H(1017-1019AD)=2 yr.

Yahya bin Hamood(shiya)

410H-413H(1019-1022AD)=3 yrs.

14-Abdur Rahman bin Hisham

413H = 50 days

15-Mohammed bin Abdur Rahman

413H-414H(1022-1023AD)=1 yr.

16-Hisham 3rd.bin Mohammed

414H-422H(1023-1030AD)=8 yrs.

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RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY IN SPAIN DURING ARAB RULE

143H-854H (760-1450AD)

The progress made in learning Religious knowledge, Philosophy, Mathematics, Science & Technology by Arabs is far advanced than any other nations of that time. Many universities in different fields were opened in Qurtaba, Ashbelia, Gharnata, Tulaitla & Marsia where students from Europe also use to study. Great famous scholars came out from these universities.

Achievements are following:-

Religious Knowledge

Quran, Hadees, Fiqah, Tafseer & Philosophy were taught.

Ibne Khateeb Qurtabi was qualified from here. He wrote 1,100 books on history, medicine etc.

Ibne Hassaan wrote 450 books on Fiqah & Philosophy.

Al Muzaffar King of Batluse wrote an Encyclopedia.

General Studies

History, Geography, Astronomy, Philosophy, Mathematics etc.

Science & Technology

Medical science, Surgery, Botanical science, Zoological science, Engineering etc.

Invention Origination & Designing

Magnetic Compass.

Surgery.

Invented paper by leather.

Gunpowder & Cannon.

Fort breaking weapons.

Mining of metals & mercury.

Mining of Ruby

Corals & Pearls from shore of Spain.

Advanced silk & woolen textile Industry.

Spanish industrial products, weapons, minerals, rice, dry fruits, perfumes, silk & woolen cloths, papers etc.,were exported to Asia.

One of the biggest Olive oil Industry.

One of the biggest Ship building Industry.

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